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In fact, if a therapist diagnoses a patient with PTSD, then the first thing he or she will do is look for clinical signs of hypervigilance. The good news is that these symptoms manifest themselves quite overtly in a physical fashion. However, the key to understanding hypervigilance is not pigeonholing it into just a physical disorder.
Simply put, for people who have a relationship with a hypervigilant person, these relationships can be exhausting and require boundaries. Though PTSD is not a mental illness in the way bipolar disorder is, it can be quite debilitating. PTSD is a type of anxiety disorder manifesting as an acute response to specific stimuli or a traumatic event. People who suffer from PTSD have experienced serious trauma, and the psychological response is to create defense mechanisms.
PTSD is also anxiety based. There are many different PTSD symptoms. Hypervigilance is one of them. Some of the more affected groups of people who are diagnosed with PTSD are people who have experienced intense situations. For example, soldiers and police officers are two professions that often deal with PTSD. Others are those who are victims of violent crimes, such as rape, assault, and other types of violence often manifest with various behaviors characterizing this disorder.
Another group of people who can suffer from PTSD are people who survive natural disasters or other types of calamitous events. This particular variant affects children and is often the result of repeated childhood traumas. For example, Ashley Judd is a famous actress and celebrity who experienced this particular brand of anxiety as a child. She sought treatment and today she has more control over her anxiety and feels less anxious.
Treatment for people with PTSD often involves anti-anxiety medications prescribed by psychiatrists. In severe cases, intense cognitive-behavior therapy may be necessary. Hypervigilance, or hyperarousal, symptoms in a person with PTSD can be put into several different categories. Someone suffering from hypervigilance will be characterized by different physical, emotional, mental, and behavioral symptoms. Many times, these symptoms do not present with uniform consistency.
Dangerous Worlds A Spiritual Guide To Ptsd English Edition Ebooks @dnipacisles.tk
For example, it is not entirely unheard of for a person suffering from hypervigilance to present physically normal but have odd behavioral issues consistent with hypervigilance. However, no two cases of hypervigilance are alike. There are a couple things to differentiate. For example, someone with hypervigilance is aware of their surrounding and events, unlike someone with dysphoric hyperarousal.
The current study compares only the psychotherapeutic part of treatment, but for ethical reasons all other services social counseling, body therapy, health advice in the clinic are kept open for all participants as needed, and the extent of other services will be monitored throughout the study. All participants who receive medication as part of the treatment in the experimental group as well as the standard treatment group are monitored continuously by the physicians during the whole course of psychotherapy.
Differences between groups are analyzed as possible confounders related to outcome. A significant correlation between dose and response has been found for music therapy treatment with serious mental disorders, with small effect sizes after three to ten sessions and large effects after 16 to 51 sessions [ 66 ]. A review of quantitative studies of GIM concluded, that at least ten sessions should be provided for clinical populations [ 67 ]. In our pilot study, 16 sessions provided significant changes with large effect sizes on all the outcome measures.
We chose to repeat the 16 sessions as dose for both treatment arms in the present study. If any cancellations occur the treatment period is prolonged until all 16 sessions have been received. Should the participant encounter any given events that would lead to further traumatizing by way of circumstances outside therapy, treatment can be prolonged to as many as 20 sessions, after consultation with the treatment team and the physician.
In both music therapy and the comparator treatment a phase-oriented treatment according to Herman [ 68 ] is carried out, including a stabilizing phase, a trauma-exposure phase and a reorientation phase if possible.
The development of a safe therapeutic relationship and verbal processing are components in both psychological standard treatment and trauma-focused GIM. Thereby, the professional adaptation of music as a therapeutic medium, including the way that music influences the therapeutic relationship, is the independent variable in the trial.
TMI is an adaptation of GIM, a music therapy method initiated by the American music therapist Helen Bonny in the s [ 53 , 69 ] using music listening of selections of classical music in an altered state of consciousness as a medium for therapeutic change. During the listening experience, a non-directive verbal dialog between patient and therapist is carried out supporting the deepening and integration of the ongoing stream of imagery, emotions and sensations evoked by the music. GIM has served as primary psychotherapeutic treatment in a range of clinical settings and has been modified and adapted to several clinical populations [ 70 ].
The method has been adapted to refugee trauma treatment by the authors Beck, Moe and Meyer [ 62 ]. Finding a music piece patient chosen or therapist chosen; if the therapist chooses the piece a small excerpt is played to assess the match of music with the patient. Music listening; the patient is sitting on a chair or lying on a couch, eyes open or closed as preferred. A short induction; for example, mindful focus on breathing, guided relaxation or focus on an inner image. The therapist can talk during the music if helpful.
Verbal communication about the drawing and the experience with the focus on integration of important imagery, acknowledgement and meaningfulness in the therapeutic process. Treatment phases the session numbers are indicative as a patient can stay in phase 1 for the whole time or go back and forth between phases :.
The participants are provided with a CD containing seven pieces of music for listening to at home see Appendix 2. The preferred piece s is are used in the first sessions. Music accompanied breathing [ 70 ] is offered as help to deepen the breathing abdominal breathing and to regulate arousal. Music as a safe ground and as a way to detach from pain and negative feelings is in the focus. The therapeutic alliance develops through shared experience with music. The music in the stabilization phase is characterized by a high degree of predictability concerning the musical parameters i.
The participant is asked to work with the music at home between sessions. Contact with different kinds of emotions in the music is explored. Both positive and difficult emotions can be experienced, while listening to music, and the ability to contain contrasting emotions, ambivalence and different aspects of emotions are important parts of the investigation process.
The primary focus is on giving the patients an opportunity to both explore and be able to stay with difficult emotions with the aid of music, as well as a possibility to develop new coping skills that will allow the patients to change their emotions through their interaction with the music. If the patient is stable enough and feels safe, music with more depth and dynamics can be introduced.
A process of exposure during music listening is carried out when the patient has achieved sufficient stabilization. The narrative of traumatic events can be accompanied by, and supported by, music, or music and imagery can be used for exploration of traumatic episodes.
Trauma imagery can also emerge during music listening without a fixed focus, and can be processed with the support of the therapist and the music. The music serves as a holding structure that match the emotions and states of trauma processing, or the music can be used to regulate arousal during exposure. All sessions are carried out with the focus on step-by-step work and safety; for instance, can music pieces connected to safety imagery or positive resources alternate with pieces of music accompanying trauma memory.
Grieving and loss are common themes that are explored in the music and imagery experiences, and can be assessed by encouraging the patient to engage in imaginary dialog with lost relatives. Anger management can be included as a therapeutic focus. If a patient is overwhelmed by the music and imagery experience, or suffers intruding flash-backs, the music is immediately turned down or changed.
In phase 4 the patients are encouraged to develop their social network and engagement in activities in their community if they are ready for it. Music and imagery can help the patient to be reminded of their dreams, and to keep them in focus as a beacon for their goals in life. Moreover, the imagery can serve as a way to rehearse new kinds of behavior in a safe environment. This phase also touches on identity and existential meaning, and the chosen music stimulates the patient to reflect upon on these cornerstones of life.